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It might surprise you just how many industries need to make use of welding joints. There is a pretty limitless number of applications from household projects, to vehicle manufacturing and so much more.
While this is all great in one sense, you need to know which types of welding joints to use for which job. This can present a lot of hassle (especially to beginner welders).
Luckily, you have stumbled upon us! We are going to give you all the information you need to become an expert in weld joints and their uses.
Table of Contents
So, what actually are weld joints? Although it seems pretty obvious and to tell you the truth, it is we re going to be diving into the specifics.
What are welding joints? Welding joints is the procedure of connecting a couple of pieces of metal (or plastic) at an edge or a point.
Numerous factors come into play here including the shape of the materials, and certain geometrical aspects.
Another critical consideration you will need to make before making the weld to fuse the pieces together is what welding style to use. Plus, which type of joint is necessary.
Each type of joint can be joined by many different types of welds. The figure below shows the most common types of welds joints made Different Types Of Welding Joints
Once you know all of this, you can finally create the welding joint.
Right, let s move on now to the types of welding joints. We know you re itching to get started!
We mentioned briefly that one of the factors you need to consider before actually welding a joint is the type of join. That s exactly what we re going to be discussing now so buckle up! It s about to get interesting.
The figure below shows the five basic weld joints.
As you might have already imagined, the desired result is a T shape. This is achieved by ensuring two metal pieces cross at 90 degrees. Therefore, the edges of the components will meet at the centre of the plate or specimen.
Sometimes, tee joints or T joints can be formed by a tube that you weld onto a base plate.
This type of welded joint is typically used when you need to attach something (like a pipe) to a base plate (as we mentioned above).
When using these in real-life applications, you should ensure you re careful to get the proper penetration amount into the bottom material.
Since we haven t discussed welding styles yet, we ll go through each of these in turn. This way, you ll be fully clued-up when you next have to tackle welding joints.
Plug welding is a style used when spot welding can t be done. Most of the time, rally car builders love to use this since a spot welder can t fit into the crevices.
So, How s It Done?
While you don t necessarily need a specific plug welding clamp, it s incredibly useful. It holds the two metal plates together but still allows your torch in so you can work productively.
This especially applies when you re performing a tee joint with this technique.
Fillet weld tee joints are used mainly in buildings and bridgework. Normally, they include plate girders, stiffener, endplates, and bracing connections.
Since they re the most common style (in arc-welding) used when performing a tee joint, you may have done his hundreds of times without even knowing.
This can be created when attempting a tee joint fairly easily. But why would you bother with a bevel groove weld? Isn t that just more work?
In a sense, yes. However, the bevel groove style ensures the tee joint is incredibly strong.
So, How Does It Work?
The vertical plate (i.e. the stem of the T shape) will be bevelled either on the right side or the left side. If you do it correctly, you should see a diagonally ascending gap from the base plate to the vertical plate.
This allows the join to be amazingly durable and less likely to crack under pressure.
Flare bevel groove weld tends to be used when you re trying to create a corner joint (which we re going to talk about later). Having said that, they are used for tee joints too particularly when you are attaching a round bar to a flat base plate.
So, How Does It Work?
When you place the round bar onto your base plate, you will see that there are definite gaps between the two materials.
In basic terms, performing a flare bevel groove weld means filling in these two gaps. Why? To strongly adhere the two pieces together.
Do you remember earlier when we discussed bevel groove welds? Well, the J-groove weld is incredibly similar.
So, How Does It Work?
As you will have done with the bevel groove weld, the vertical piece will be the one that is shaped. In this case, the aforementioned shaping should be curved.
Remember that when you re doing bevel groove welds, the bevel is a straight, diagonal line. However, J-grooves require a curve near the end of the otherwise straight diagonal line.
Then, you have to fill in the somewhat oddly shaped diagonal gap.
This style of welding visibly strengthens the root of a welded joint (in this case, a tee joint). Here, the weld metal needs to go through beyond the back plate and be welded from the underside too.
So, How Does It Work?
When you re performing this method on a tee joint, you will weld through the back so the metal melts through into the vertical plate.
For slot welds in tee joints, the base plate is the area that is manipulated. It will have a cutout section that is fractionally bigger than the vertical plate.
So, How Does It Work?
Once the base plate is prepared, you will slot the vertical plate into it.
Then, you fill the gaps in similarly to how a plug weld is formed. However, you won t always have to fill it up completely this is worked out on a project-by-project basis.
Okay, are you ready to tackle the second type of welding joint now? Fantastic! Let s crack on then.
How many basic types of joints are there in welding? How do you Weld a Joint? >> Check out the video below :
Edge joints are usually used when two pieces of sheet metal have flanging edges. Other applications tend to be in places where a weld is the only way to attach pieces that are next to each other.
Typically, the metal parts will be side-by-side and then welded on the same edge. Edge Joint Weld
It s not a very strong joint because the weld metal doesn t go through the entire joint.
Because of the aforementioned weakness, edge joints are only used in mufflers or for joining thin pieces of sheet metal.
You can add filler metal to increase the strength but there are other joints to use when you need super-strong joints.
We have already discussed the bevel groove and J-groove welding styles in the tee joint section. So, we ll briefly touch on the others now.
The square groove weld is simple. Plus, it provides extra strength (but this isn t really noticed when used as an edge joint).
There isn t any spacing between the pieces here and is more commonly used when you re doing gas or arc welding.
Of course, you can play around with the thickness of the weld. But, if you re looking for a pretty seamless edge, you can t go too far with this.
If both edges of your piece are bevelled on each side, then you will have to perform a V-groove weld.
What do we mean?
When your material is standing on its base, does it look like a house with a pointy roof? Yes? Then when you place the tip of the roof onto the second s piece roof tip, the only way to join them is by doing a V-groove weld.
Here, you ll need to fill in the top and the bottom to secure the pieces.
If both the metal pieces you are planning to edge join are flanged, then an edge flange weld will be your new best friend.
Simply place the two straight edges together (with the flanges flaring out on either side) and weld the join.
That was easy, wasn t it?
Think back to the V-groove. You had pieces with pointy roofs, right? Well, imagine the diagonal sides were dented inwards and, when the two pieces are put together, semi-circles are formed. This is a U-groove.
Similarly to the aforementioned V-groove, you ll need to weld the top and the bottom to secure it.
A corner-flange weld must be used when one piece is a rectangle (i.e. no edges that flange) and one with a flanged edge.
Here, you would connect the straight side of the flange piece to the flat metal so the tops are aligned. Then, you ll weld the corners to secure the two sheets.
The sheet metal sector loves this type of joint.
It is used when welding on the outside of the adjoining metal pieces. If you have placed the pieces correctly (at right angles), the finished item will create an L shape.
Usually, this type of joint is used when making rectangular frames or building boxes.
We ve already looked at all of these so take a gander at our previous conversation if you need a refresher.
If you need to join two pieces of metal that are different thicknesses, a lap joint is the one for you. As you may have gathered by the name, the metal parts are overlapped to create the lap joint.
You can choose whether to weld on one side or both, depending on how strong you need the join to be.
Yep, we ve covered all of these! You can find everything you need to know in the tee joint or edge joint section.
For a butt joint welding, two pieces will be sat next to each other in a parallel position. It s the most recognized form of welding for many domestic and industrial applications.
Generally, this kind of welded joint is used when joining flanges, valves, certain equipment, pipes, tubes, and other fittings. Horizontal Butt joint
We ll briefly look at the flare V-groove weld as we haven t yet discussed this.
This is just a flare bevel groove weld but when both the pieces are cylindrical. Here, the pieces are placed lengthways on top of each other and you ll weld on both sides to strengthen the join.
I recently wrote an article about the 4 main welding positions, have a look at it.
At times, you may well want to test the durability and strength of your welding joints. This may be more prominent in industries like automobile manufacturing but this isn t always the case. Making sure you produce a high-quality item isn t restricted to certain sectors.
There are many ways to test welding joints; some are easier than others. Since we don t want to bore you, we re going to be talking about just 4 of the main one s today.
Let s get into the details.
This is the most popular test and it s used to test the skill and integrity of you, the welder. To tell you the truth, it s common because it is quick and simple to do. No advanced tools are needed so basically any welder can perform a bend test.
What s the theory behind it? Well, it works on the philosophy that a welded joint should withstand a specific amount of pressure before it breaks or cracks.
There are various versions of bend tests: the guided bend test, back bend, and the free bend. We ll take a look at each of these in turn.
This version is used to test the quality of the root and face of the welded joint. Typically, your piece will be bent to 180 degrees.
Depending on whether you re examining the face or root, the piece will be held at different points.
You will need a jig to perform a guided bend test properly.
The back bend test option determines the quality of the metal used and the penetration degree into the butt joint.
The items used are akin to those of the free test which you can find below if you re not familiar with everything included there.
Your piece will have to be bent exactly 90 degrees without breaking for it to pass this requirement. However, you won t see many folks performing this as it has been outdone by the guided bend test.
This type of bend test has been invented to examine the ductility of the metal in a welded joint.
To do it correctly, you will need to hold and bend your piece at certain intervals. The ends will be bent approximately 30 degrees, a third of the way into the middle. This ensures that all the bends happen inside the weld.
You will then place your piece into a specialised machine which will place lots of compressive force onto it. It won t stop until cracks appear. That s when you know how ductile your welded joint is.
To do a nick break test, you will need to break the welded joint and take a look at the pieces that fractured. What could you possibly gain from this, we hear you ask? Well, you can establish how many gas pockets are there, porosity, and the fusion degree.
You should place your piece between two support systems which then apply pressure. After that, you need a hammer to give it a short, sharp hit. Undoubtedly, this will fracture your piece. All that s left to do after that is to examine the parts for defects.
This kind of test helps you to figure out the soundness of your weld.
Firstly, you will have to slice a cross-section out of the joint. That cut part will be put into an etching solution.
By etching solution we mean iodine, potassium iodide, or nitric acid.
The solution will eventually react with the metal to show you where the piece s flaws lie. Also, it will allow you to see where the boundary between the base and weld metal is placed.
So far, every test we ve looked at has been destructive. In other words, your piece is broken by the end of the examination. However, this final one ensures your specimen stays intact after the fact.
This will simply test the integrity of the material you have used.
Unfortunately, it s a very technical, advanced type of testing that requires extremely specialist equipment. Methods of this include radiography, visual tests, liquid penetration inspection, magnetic particle testing, and much more.
Here are a few common questions people often have about weld joint types:
Are welding joints permanent? Yes, when you make a welding joint, it will be there permanently.
Since the metals are melted at such a high temperature, filled to create a weld pool, and then cooled, there s almost no way to break the connection.
Although, you should note that the joint is going to be far less durable than the in-tact pieces connected to it. Does this make sense? Excellent!
What are the strongest welding joints? professional welders will tell that tee joint or corner joints are the strongest because of a proper penetration while using an arc welder.
However, it all depends on the materials really but we re going to assume you re using some pretty heavy-duty material. So, if that is the case, you will want to use an open weld corner joint.
Here, an L-shape will be achieved by placing the pieces next to each other, allowing a small gap in between. The weld is used to fill in the corner and the gap.
Specially for beginners, aluminum is considered the hardest metal to weld.
It is very difficult to determine the melting temperature of aluminum because it is mixed with many other metals.
For more info, how to weld aluminum, read this article.
If you are interested in welding gear or tools, then just follow the link to our recommendation page where you can see all welding accessories we love and use (NO CRAP)
Welding is a complex craft that requires patience, attention to detail, and creativity. To do their job successfully, welders must have a deep understanding of the various techniques and practices used in the industry, including the types of welded joints.
The term weld joint design refers to the way metal parts are joined or aligned with one another. The design of each joint affects the quality and cost of the finished weld. Selecting the most suitable joint design for a welding job requires special care and skill.
A welding joint is a point or edge where two or more pieces of metal or plastic are joined together. They are formed by welding two or more workpieces (metal or plastic) according to a particular geometry.
There are five types of joints referred to by the American Welding Society: butt, corner, edge, lap, and tee. These configurations may have various configurations at the joint where actual welding can occur.
According to AWS, there are five basic welding joint types that are commonly used in the industry:
A butt weld is one of the simplest and most versatile types of welded joints. The joint is made simply by placing two pieces of metal together and then welding them along the join. In the case of a butt joint, it is important that the surfaces of the workpieces to be joined lie in the same plane and the weld metal remains within the planes of the surfaces. As a result, the workpieces are almost parallel and do not overlap, as is the case with overlapping joints, for example.
Tee welds are created when two parts intersect at a 90 angle. This causes the edges to converge in the center of a panel or component in a T-shape. Tee joints are considered a type of fillet weld and can also be formed when a tube or pipe is welded to a base plate.
Tee joints are usually not grooved unless the base metal is thick and the welding on both sides cannot withstand the load the joint must bear. A common defect that occurs in Tee joints is the rupture of lamellae, which occurs due to a limitation of the joint. To prevent this from happening, welders often use a stopper to prevent joint deformation.
Corner joint welding refers to instances in which two materials meet in the corner to form an L-shape. You can use corner joints to construct sheet metal parts, including frames, boxes, and similar applications.
To complete this joint, begin by tacking the outside edges, then make the same curved zig-zag weaving motion we made for our filleted tee weld.
Corner joints can be hard because you can t often rest your hand on your material to steady your torch hand. You may want to practice a dry run along the joint to make sure you re going to be able to weld comfortably, I ve gone as far as clamping a vice grip to another piece of material to create a hand rest.
The styles used for creating corner joints include V-groove, J-groove, U-groove, spot, edge, fillet, corner-flange, bevel-groove, flare-V-groove, and square-groove or butt.
Lap welding joints are essentially a modified version of the butt joint. They are formed when two pieces of metal are placed in an overlapping pattern on top of each other. They are most commonly used to join two pieces with differing thicknesses together. Welds can be made on one or both sides.
Lap joints are rarely used on thicker materials and are commonly used for sheet metal. Potential drawbacks to this type of welding joint include lamellar tearing or corrosion due to overlapping materials. However, as with anything, this can be prevented by using the correct techniques and modifying variables as necessary.
Edge welding Joints are often applied to sheet metal parts that have flanging edges or are placed at a location where a weld must be made to attach to adjacent pieces. Being a groove type weld, Edge Joints, the pieces are set side by side and welded on the same edge.
In an edge joint, the metal surfaces are placed together so that the edges are even. One or both plates may be formed by bending them at an angle. The purpose of a weld joint is to join parts together so that the stresses are distributed. The forces causing stresses in welded joints are tensile, compression, bending, torsion, and shear.
The ability of a welded joint to withstand these forces depends upon both the joint design and the weld integrity. Some joints can withstand certain types of forces better than others. The welding process to be used as a major effect on the selection of the joint design. Each welding process has characteristics that affect its performance.
Fillet welding refers to the process of joining two pieces of metal together when they are perpendicular or at an angle. These welds are commonly referred to as tee joints, which are two pieces of metal perpendicular to each other, or lap joints, which are two pieces of metal that overlap and are welded at the edges.
The weld is triangular in shape and may have a concave, flat, or convex surface depending on the welder s technique. Welders use fillet welds when connecting flanges to pipes and welding cross-sections of infrastructure, and when bolts are not strong enough, and will wear off easily.
There are two main types of fillet weld: transverse fillet weld and parallel fillet weld.
Groove weld is defined as an opening between the two joint members which provides the space to contain the metal. Groove welds are the most used welds after the fillet weld. The second most popular type of weld is the groove weld.
The groove weld refers to beads that are deposited in a groove between two members to be joined. The type of weld used will determine the manner in which the seam, joint, or surface is prepared.
These are welds composed of one or more strings or weave beads deposited on an unbroken surface to obtain desired properties or dimensions.
Surfacing is a welding process used to apply a hard, wear-resistant layer of metal to surfaces or edges of worn-out parts. It is one of the most economical methods of conserving and extending the life of machines, tools, and construction equipment.
A surfacing weld is composed of one or more stringer or weave beads. Surfacing, sometimes known as hard facing or wear facing, is often used to build up worn shafts, gears, or cutting edges.
A Plug Weld, also known as the Rosette Weld, is when two metals are fused through welds placed in small circular holes. This process is typically done on two overlapping metals, with the top metal having the holes for the weld to be deposited.
Plug welding is an alternative to spot welding used by vehicle manufacturers where there is insufficient access for a spot welder. For DIY car restoration, it s generally used instead of spot welding on panels flanges that would have originally been spot welded.
Plug welds when done properly tend to be stronger than the original spot welds. Rally car builders often use the technique, and it is acceptable in a UK MOT test as an alternative to spot welds were repairing older cars
A slot weld joins the surface of a piece of material to another piece through an elongated hole. The hole can be open at one end and can be partially or completely filled with weld material.
This is a weld made in an elongated hole in one member of a lap or tee joint joining that member to the surface of the other member that is exposed through the hole. This hole may be open at one end and may be partially or completely filled with weld metal.
Flash welding is a type of resistance welding that does not use any filler metals. The pieces of metal to be welded are set apart at a predetermined distance based on material thickness, material composition, and desired properties of the finished weld.
Current is applied to the metal, and the gap between the two pieces creates resistance and produces the arc required to melt the metal. Once the pieces of metal reach the proper temperature, they are pressed together, effectively forge welding them together.
Railroads use flash welding to join sections of mainline rail together to create Long Welded Rail (LWR) in a factory setting or continuous welded rail (CWR) in track, which is much smoother than mechanically-joined rail because there are no gaps between the sections of rail.
This smoother rail reduces the wear on the rails themselves, effectively reducing the frequency of inspections and maintenance.
Seam welding is the process of joining two similar or dissimilar materials at the seam by the use of electric current and pressure. Seam welding is possible thanks to the contact resistance created between the two metals. As current passes between the metals, heat gets generated at the small gap.
The process is mostly used on metals since they conduct electricity easily and can sustain relatively high pressures. As current passes between the metals, heat gets generated at the small gap. Electrodes maintain and control the flow of electricity.
Spot welding (also known as resistance spot welding) is a resistance welding process. This welding process is used primarily for welding two or more metal sheets together by applying pressure and heat from an electric current to the weld area.
It works by contacting copper alloy electrodes to the sheet surfaces, whereby pressure and electric current are applied and heat is generated by the passage of current through resistive materials such as low carbon steels.
Upset welding (UW)/resistance butt welding is a welding technique that produces coalescence simultaneously over the entire area of abutting surfaces or progressively along a joint, by the heat obtained from resistance to electric current through the area where those surfaces are in contact.
Pressure is applied before heating is started and is maintained throughout the heating period. The equipment used for upset welding is very similar to that used for flash welding. It can be used only if the parts to be welded are equal in cross-sectional area.
The abutting surfaces must be very carefully prepared to provide for proper heating. The difference from flash welding is that the parts are clamped in the welding machine and force is applied bringing them tightly together.
High-amperage current is then passed through the joint, which heats the abutting surfaces. When they have been heated to a suitable forging temperature an upsetting force is applied and the current is stopped. The high temperature of the work at the abutting surfaces plus the high pressure causes coalescence to take place. After cooling, the force is released and the weld is completed.
If you don t know the types of joints, it is going to make welding pretty difficult to follow.
Different techniques are used to perform different types of joints depending on both the material that is being used as well as the metal that is being welded.
Before we go further, we need to make sure that you are clear on what a joint is and its purpose:
A joint is a point where two or more pieces of metal are joined together to create one solid structure.
This type of weld is the most common type that is used in automated welding.
A butt joint is a joint that is used when two pieces of metal are to be welded together side by side.
This type of weld is probably the easiest type to do as it consists of two flat pieces that are attached parallel to each other in a side-by-side fashion.
You will find this type of
If you look hard for this type of weld, it will be hard not to find something that uses it.
In butt welding category can be used many types of weld:
If you want to use this type of joint, you will need to use two pieces of metal and join them at a right angle to each other so that it forms a corner.
This type of joint is one that gets replaced fairly often due to the increased wear and tear that is put on the corners of different units.
One thing that is important to note about this type of weld is that you do it on the outside of the corner.
This type of weld is commonly used for sheet metal to attach pieces together to create various shapes.
In this category you can find the following types of weld:
This type of joint is formed when two pieces of metal are placed on top of one another and then are welded together in this manner.
This type of weld can be done on one or both sides of a sheet of metal, depending on how well you want the metal to be welded together.
The joint is often used to attach two pieces together that are of varying thicknesses.
You will find lap joints on things like weight and exercise machines, as well as some industrial equipment.
Weld types used in lap joint:
This type of weld is the type that gets replaced more often than any other type of weld. It is done on the same edge which is why it tends to get brittle over time and needs to be replaced.
If you aren t sure where this type of joint is often used, it is in the thing that you likely drive to work with; cars use this type of joint in places like the gas tank in order to hold things together.
Generally, a welder uses this type of weld only for light gauge metal as there is a lower chance of it burning all the way through the metal.
Weld types used in edge joint:
This type of weld is used to combine two pieces of intersecting metals together.
Generally, the metal intersects at a 90-degree angle which results in the edges of the top piece being exposed on top of the metal laying underneath; this is where the weld takes place.
You will find tee welds are used when a piece of metal is attached to some kind of a base.
Types of weld used in this category are:
These are the five main types of welds that are used for welding purposes.
Sometimes, as you can see, it can be hard to determine the type of weld that was used to complete a project as there are also things like bevels (angled metal used to create a stronger weld), grooves, as well as fillets.
Hopefully, after reading this article, you now have a better grasp on the types of joints that are out there.
It can be a hard decision if you are a new welder, as to what type of a joint that you should use for a certain situation.
If you are stuck in a situation where you don t know which type of weld you should use, it is a good idea to seek help and do some research.
A bad weld can result in something coming apart, and that may be really bad depending on what it is that you are welding.
It will definitely take you some practice to master all of these joints and be able to recognize which type of weld is used for what purpose.
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