Who Invented Roulette Wheel

Who Invented Roulette Wheel?

Roulette Wheel is highly played in a casino game. The word Roulette is derived from a French word. It means little wheel and completely justifies its standard design. It is a wheel that comprises of numbered slots in which a small is placed. The ball is placed opposite to the direction in which the wheel is spinning. Players have to guess the number on which the ball is going to stop to win money.
The Roulette Wheel was invented by Blaise Pascal in the early 17th century. Blaise Pascal was a French Physicist, mathematician, and inventor who has made various discoveries and inventions notably Abacus. Pascal was not inventing a Casino game instead was trying to invent the perpetual motion machine. The experiment failed but gave birth to one of the most interesting and famous casino games of all time.
The wheel remained the same as designed by Pascal for years. In 1851, Francois and Lois Blanc designed the Roulette wheel with zero in it. The amendment was made specifically for King Charles III of Monaco. The one zero addition was rejected in America. The game operators believed the odds stacked against them and thus two zeros were added to the Roulette Wheel. The most famous Roulette bet occurred in 2004.

18 Blaise Pascal Inventions And Facts That You Should Know

The man who gave us the worlds first mechanical calculator Pascaline Blaise Pascal was a child prodigy, a great scientist, a philosopher, a prolific writer and a mathematician of French origin. From discovering Pascals Theorem at the tender age of 16, to inventing the first mechanical calculator at 19 to help his father, Pascal was an all rounder who contributed a lot towards various fields.

He was a great philosopher, who, at 23 years of age converted from Christianity to Jansenism. It was after he reached 31 years of age when Pascal redirected his life and purpose towards fulfilling religious pursuits instead of scientific ones. This included religious writings that he continued with till he passed away at 39. Now, you have the chance to discover a great deal about this magnanimous personality from this list that is showcasing 18 Blaise Pascal inventions and facts that will cover his inventions, works, life, death and family.

1. Pascals contribution to the branch of Projective Geometry

One of the the greatest Blaise Pascal inventions was his contribution towards the branch of Projective Geometry, a branch or field that deals with various in-variants of geometrical figures. When he produced his theorem, he was only 16 years old. And his theorem came to be known as Pascals Theorem . It was basically an essay that Pascal wrote and was named Essai pour les coniques, meaning an Essay on Conics. In this essay, he studied geometrical figures like hexagons under projection. It was in this essay that Pascal introduced the Pascal line.

2. Pascals father educated him

An interesting trivia in this list of Blaise Pascal facts relates to his education. Blaise Pascal never went to school, or attended any university. He was given education at home by his father, Etienne. Pascals mother Antoinette passed away when he was merely a toddler. Etienne was a civil servant and was a member of noblesse de robe, the French aristocratic class. He home tutored his three children Pascal, Gilberte and Jacqueline in Paris while working on his various scientific pursuits.

3. Blaise Pascal founded the modern theory of Probability

Touted as Pascals greatest mathematics inventions, the theory of probability was in fact a great contribution to the field of mathematics by this genius mathematician. He, along with his gambler cum mathematician cum lawyer friend Pierre de Fermat, founded this theory while discussing on the matter related with gambling problems in 1654. This theory led to many innovative changes in concepts and ideas in the fields of social science and economics.

4. The first fully mechanical calculator was invented by Pascal

It was in 1642 that Blaise Pascal, in his endeavor to help his father to solve tedious tax calculations, invented the first and worlds only fully functional mechanical calculator. His calculator, also known as Pascals calculator or Pascaline could perform multiplication, division, addition and subtraction. While, one could directly add and subtract using the calculator, for division and multiplication, one had to use the repeated addition and subtraction method.

5. Pascals exclusive Provincial Letters symbolized his intense religious bent of mind

Blaise Pascal books like Pensees and Provincial Letters are famed for their theological content and purpose. Blaise Pascal got religious visions in 1654 leading him to write 18 letters from 1656 to 1657. In these letters, he focused on religion and defended the Jansenist community against the Jesuits. He came out strongly in support of Jansenists in a rather witty way, thereby, causing great uproar in the Jesuit community. In his letters, he mocked the various Jesuit institutions and garnered much aplomb from the public. The letters were declared a heresical act, and hence were ordered to be destroyed by King Louis XIV. But, these survived to influence the writings of French writers like Voltaire.

6. Bad health affected Pascal for most of his adult life

This great scientist and mathematician suffered from sickness all throughout his adult life. The facts about his illnesses were brought to limelight in his biography written by his sister Gilberte. She disclosed that Pascal never stayed healthy after he crossed 18 years of age. Throughout his life, Blaise Pascal remained sickly, always in pain or on some kind of medication. He passed away at the young age of 39 on 19th August in the year 1662. This genius mathematician was also a great writer of French prose and is famous for his works that include Pensees and Letters Provinciales.

7. In 1646 Blaise Pascal converted to Jansenism

It was because of Pascals father, Etinennes accident that the whole Pascal family converted to another faith that believed in living life dedicated to god Jansenism. It so happened that Etienne, in 1646, slipped and broke his hip. Brothers Deschamps were the best bone setters of that time, and were called upon for the treatment. These brothers belonged to Jansenism movement and believed in living an austere and god fearing life. They lived with the Pascal family for about three months during which they motivated them to join their movement by preaching their beliefs. This conversion was the starting point for Pascal as far as religious pursuits were concerned and is known as the First Conversion.

8. Pascals Law or Principle in Hydrostatics was discovered in 1647

When writing about Blaise Pascal inventions, his law of hydrostatics has to be mentioned. This law, also called Pascals Principle was founded in 1647 and is touted as the most influential law in hydrostatics. This law is the underlying principle of the hydraulic press that worked by using hydraulic pressure which multiplies force. The modern day syringe was also invented by Blaise Pascal on the basis of Pascals Law.

9. Pascal made Pascals Triangle famous in the west

Before Pascal popularized the Pascals Triangle in 1653, the western world had little clue about its existence, though, the concept of tabular presentation of arithmetic was invented in 2nd century BC by Pingala, an Indian mathematician. It was in 1653 that Blaise Pascal wrote his famed mathematical book called Traite du triangle arithmetique or Treatise on the Arithmetical Triangle, and brought the concept to the people of the west. Therefore, the triangle is named after him.

10. Pascal fell severely ill due to witchcraft

Here is one very interesting trivia in this collection of Blaise Pascal facts, and it relates to his falling ill because of witchcraft. When Pascal was just one year old, he fell seriously sick in which he was affected with swollen abdomen and random fits and twists. Most people attributed the reason to witchcraft. According to them, Pascal fell sick because of a black magic spell cast by an elderly woman. On being confronted, the woman accepted to have cast an evil spell on Pascal. On her prescription, his family procured special herbs for his treatment and also sacrificed two cats. It took three weeks for Blaise to walk on his feet again.

11. Pascals theological work Pensees is a masterpiece of French prose

Pensees is regarded as a jewel among the rest of Blaise Pascal books, and is definitely a masterpiece by the great French Classical Period writer. Pensees or Thoughts offered a detailed examination of Christian faith, and included fragments written about Pascals philosophical ideas. It was published seven years after (in 1669) Pascals death in 1662. Pensees is regarded as a gem of French prose and a landmark as well. It was Pascals first work that offered light on Christian apologetics.

12. This great mathematician was a child prodigy

Pascal was a child prodigy tutored and educated by his father Etienne Pascal. The young Blaise was taught less of mathematics, and more of history, philosophy, geography, languages like Greek and Latin. Pascal was also given lessons on the Bible as well as civil law. It was at 12 years age that Blaise started showing an avid interest in geometry. He started drawing geometrical figures all by himself and drew conclusions on his own. Seeing his mathematical bent of mind, at the tender age of 13, Pascal was introduced by his father to the society that discussed on high level topics related to science and maths. This society was called Academie libre, and Blaise took an instant liking to it. He became a member. While there, he rubbed his shoulders with other prominent personalities like Fermat and Descartes.

13. Pascal had an intense religious vision known as second conversion

It was in 1654 that Blaise Pascal denounced his scientific pursuits forever and went religious. After his fathers death in 1651 and the subsequent decision of his sister Jacqueline to become a nun, Pascal had intense visions while lying on his bed. This religious revelation or second conversion changed his bent of mind forever. He became a philosopher and a religious man, and dedicated all his time to the study of god and religious pursuits.

14. Pascal invented the roulette machine

Who would have imagined that the roulette machine was an invention by the influential scientist, inventor and mathematician, Blaise Pascal? But, it definitely falls in laise Pascal inventions list for it was Pascal that started it! It was in 1655 that Pascal, being the avid inventor, was experimenting to invent a perpetual machine that could operate without using energy from an external source. He was trying to make improvement to his mechanical calculator, Pascaline, and in doing so, accidentally discovered the roulette machine. Thanks to him, we now have a great casino game with us!

15. The discovery that with a decrease in height, atmospheric pressure too decreases

Blaise Pascal founded a direct relation between atmospheric pressure and height when Florin Perier, his brother in law conducted an experiment at Puy-de-Dome in France. Pascal, owing to ill health couldnt conduct the experiment himself. In the experiment, one barometric tube was installed at a place in the town, while, the other twin barometric tube was placed on top of a mountain. A team of scientists monitored the readings of both, and concluded that the mercury level in the first tube remained the same, but, the level of mercury in the second tube diminished with an increase in height. Therefore, it was concluded by Pascal that atmospheric pressure decreased with an increase in height.

16. The wrist watch was one of Pascal inventions

Blaise Pascal invented the wrist watch and was the first man to wear it. The watch that he invented was a pocket size watch. Pascal strapped the wrist watch using a piece of string. We do not have the time when the watch was discovered. Most historical books claim that the first watch was discovered by Peter Heinlein, a German. Blaise Pascal simply improvised the use by tying it on his wrist using a string.

17. The Computer language Pascal developed and named after the mathematician

Pascal was the new computer language developed in 1972 by a scientist called Nicklaus Wirth who dedicated it to the great inventor and mathematician Blaise Pascal. The geniuss contribution to calculating and computing could never be forgotten, and in order to recognize his contributions, Wirth named his new computing language Pascal.

18. Pascal (Pa) a unit of atmospheric pressure was named after Blaise Pascal

Since, Pascal contributed a lot towards studying and finding new concepts in the field of atmospheric pressure, it was, but natural to honor him and his legacy by naming a unit of atmospheric pressure Pascal (Pa). Blaise Pascal worked and experimented in the fields of hydrodynamics and Hydrostatics, thereby, contributing mightily to these fields. He invented Pascals Law and his influential principle. He conducted two of the most detailed studies namely, Treatise on the Weight of the Mass of Air and Treatise on the Equilibrium of Liquids that got published to become the benchmarks for hydraulics and hydrostatics sciences.

All of the above mentioned Blaise Pascal inventions and facts will help you understand the contributions of this great French mathematician who was also an influential theologist, scientist and a philosopher of the 17th century. We hope we have honored his legacy by covering these interesting facts about his life and works in todays post.

What Is a Pascal in Physics?

The pascal (symbol: Pa) is a unit derived from the International System used to measure internal pressure, mechanical stress, Young's modulus and tensile strength. Pascal is defined as a newton per square meter.

The unit is named after Blaise Pascal, known for his contributions to hydrodynamics and hydrostatics, and experiments with a barometer. The name pascal was adopted for the SI Newton unit per square meter (N / m 2 ) by the 14th General Conference on Weights and Measures in 1971.

What Is a Pascal Equivalent To?

Next, we attach a Pascal conversion table to other pressure units:

  • 1 N / m 2 = 1 Pa
  • 101325 atm = 1 Pa
  • 100000 bar = 1 Pa
  • 9.80665 kg / m 2 = 1 Pa
  • 1 mm of water column (mm H 2 O) = 9.80665 Pa
  • 1 mm mercury column (mm Hg) = 133,322 Pa

Some common of the pascal are hectopascal (1 hPa = 100 Pa), which is equivalent to one millibar, quilopascal (1 kPa = 1000 Pa), megapascals (1 MPa = 1,000,000 Pa) and gigapascal (1 GPa = 1,000,000,000 Pa ).

The unit of measure called the standard atmosphere (atm) is defined as 101,325 Pa and approximates the atmospheric pressure at sea level at a latitude of 45 N.

In Which Examples Is Pascal Used as a Unit of Measure?

Pascal (Pa) or kilopascal (kPa) as a unit of pressure measurement is widely used throughout the world and has largely replaced pounds per square inch (psi), except in some countries that still use the imperial measurement system or in the US UU.

Geophysicists use gigapascal (GPa) to measure or calculate tectonic tensions and pressures within the Earth.

Medical elastography measures tissue stiffness non-invasively with ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging, and often shows Young's modulus or tissue shear modulus in kilopascals.

In materials science and engineering, pascal measures the stiffness, tensile strength and compressive strength of materials. In the use of engineering, because the pascal represents a very small amount, the megapascal (MPa) is the preferred unit for these uses.

The pascal is also equivalent to the unit of the international system of energy density measurements, J / m 3 . This applies not only to the thermodynamics of pressurized gases, but also to the energy density of electric, magnetic and gravitational fields.

In measurements of sound pressure or sound intensity, a pascal equals 94 decibels SPL.

The airtightness of the buildings is measured at 50 pascals (Pa).

The atmospheric pressure units commonly used in meteorology were previously the bar, which was close to the average air pressure on Earth, and the millibar. Since the introduction of the units of the international measurement system (SI), meteorologists generally measure the pressures in hectopascal units (hPa), equivalent to 100 pascals or 1 millibar.

Exceptions include Canada, which uses kilopascals (kPa). In many other fields of science, SI is preferred, which means that Pa with a prefix (in multiples of 1000) is preferred.

Many countries also use millibars or hectopascals to make adjustments to the aviation altimeter. In virtually all other fields, the kilopascal (1000 pascals) is used instead.

What Is the Pascal Principle?

Pascal's law (also the Pascal principle or the principle of fluid pressure transmission) is a principle in fluid mechanics given by Blaise Pascal which states that: "The pressure exerted on a liquid contained in a completely filled and closed container will continue to spread in all directions. "

In other words, Pascal's principle tells us that a change in pressure at any point of an incompressible confined fluid is transmitted through the fluid in such a way that the same change occurs everywhere.

Pascal's law is also called Pascal's principle or principle of fluid pressure transmission.

Who Was Blaise Pascal?

Blaise Pascal (Clermont-Ferrand, June 19, 1623 - Paris, August 19, 1,662) was a philosopher, mathematician, physicist, inventor, writer, moralist, mystic and Occitan theologian, considered one of the brightest characters of wisdom Western and probably the only one that occupies front-line positions in the manuals of all the disciplines he cultivated.

In his maturity, however, he approached Jansenism, and, faced with the prevailing rationalism, undertook the formulation of a philosophy of Christian sign (truncated by his premature death), in which his reflections on the human condition, especially who knew how to appreciate both his great dignity and his miserable insignificance.

Inventions and Discoveries of Blaise Pascal

In 1642, inspired by the idea of ??making his father's tax calculation job easier, Blaise Pascal began working on a calculator called Pascaline. (The German scholar William Schickard had developed and manufactured an earlier version of the calculator in 1623). Pascalina was a numerical wheel calculator with moving spheres, each representing a numerical digit. The invention, however, was not without technical problems: there was a discrepancy between the design of the calculator and the structure of the French currency at that time. Pascal continued working on the improvement of the device, with 50 prototypes produced in 1652, but Pascaline was never a great sales success.

In 1648, Pascal began writing more of his theorems in The Generation of Conic Sections, but pushed the work aside until the next decade.

At the end of the 1640s, Pascal temporarily focused his experiments on the physical sciences. Following in the footsteps of Evangelist Torricelli, Pascal experienced how atmospheric pressure could be estimated in terms of weight. In 1648, asking his brother-in-law to take barometric pressure readings at various altitudes on a mountain (Pascal was too poor to do the trek himself), he validated Torricelli's theory about the cause of barometric variations.

In the 1650s, Pascal dedicated himself to trying to create a perpetual motion machine, whose goal was to produce more energy than he used. In the process, he stumbled upon an accidental invention and in 1655 Pascal's roulette machine was born. Appropriately, he took his name from the French word for "little wheel."

The overlapping of his work on roulette was the correspondence of Pascal with the mathematical theoretician Pierre de Fermat, which began in 1654. Through his letters about the game and Pascal's own experiments, he discovered that there is a fixed probability of a result particular when it comes to the roll of the dice. This discovery was the basis of the mathematical theory of probability, with Pascal's writings on the subject published posthumously.

Although the specific dates are uncertain, Pascal also invented a primitive form of the wristwatch. It was an informal invention, to say the least: it was known that the mathematician put his pocket watch on his wrist with a piece of rope, presumably for convenience while retouching with other inventions.

What is Roulette?

There is no doubt that roulette is one of the most popular and beloved games ever and it is played in every casino around the world. Gamblers just love this game because there are numerous types of bets you can choose from, which gives you the opportunity to find the bets that are lucky for you no matter whether they are lucky numbers, dozens, black, red and etc. Other facts that add up to its popularity are the simple rules and the good chances to win by placing the proper bets and our goal at MyCasinoStrategy is to give you all the knowledge you need in order to learn how to play and win on roulette.

The history of roulette dates back to more than 300 years ago and this game of chance has been entertaining gamblers around the world for more than three centuries and continues to do so nowadays. The word roulette is in French and means small wheel and that is where the name of the game comes from. The first variants of the game appeared during the 17th century in Europe and it is believed that Blaise Pascal, the famous French mathematician and scientist, invented the roulette wheel while he was searching for a perpetual motion machine. The game, as we know it nowadays, first appeared in 1796, in Paris, and it started to become very popular around Europe.

You can read the full roulette history in our relevant section start reading our roulette history article.

The rules of the game are quite simple and it is very easy to learn how to play it. The goal of the game is the player to guess where the ball will land after spinning the roulette wheel. The dealer spins the wheel and all the players on the table play against him by guessing what number will come out. Each player decides what bets to place on a certain number, combination of numbers, black or red, odd or even, dozens and etc. You may take a look at the different types of bets in our relevant section. There are two types of roulette American and European and depending on that, there is a difference in the number of the sectors on the wheel. American roulette has got 38 sectors while the European has got 37. The reason for this is that the American type has got two green zero sectors while the European has got only one. This makes the European roulette a better choice for the players because it gives better winning chances to the players.

You can learn how to play roulette by visiting our relevant section start reading our roulette rules article.

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